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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 169-177

The modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for miscarriage


1 Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Menoufia University, Egypt
2 Assistant Professor of Maternal & Newborn Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Menoufia University, Egypt; College of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Shaqra, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Tahany El-Sayed El-Sayed Amr
Maternal & Newborn Health Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Menoufia University, Egypt

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2090-6021.200178

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Background Miscarriage is a failed intrauterine pregnancy that ends before 20 weeks of gestation. Many factors can lead to miscarriage, such as age, smoking, caffeine intake, infections, medications, and chronic diseases. Aim The aim of this study was to identify the modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for miscarriage. Subjects and method A descriptive exploratory study design was used. This study was carried out at primary healthcare centers and obstetric outpatient clinics of Shaqra and Merat general hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study included a total of 260 adult women. A structured interviewing questionnaire and modifiable risk factor assessment questionnaire were used. Results The mean age of the participants was 36.8±5.2 years. The reported types of miscarriages were spontaneous (30.8%), incomplete (24.2%), and recurrent (17.7%) miscarriage. The reported modifiable risks were work that requires constant motions and hard effort (37.0%), and pregnant women working more than 40 h/week (28.4%). Lifestyle risk factors included drinking more than 200 mg caffeine/day (87.9%), eating too much spice (39.6%), eating dates daily (37.3%), drinking cola constantly (37.0%), passive smoking (35.8%), and obesity (32.3%). Moreover, there were some obstetric risk factors for miscarriage, such as no spacing between pregnancies, hormonal imbalance, ovarian cyst, and genital infections. Conclusion There was a relationship between lifestyle and risk for miscarriage. Miscarriage can be prevented by reducing the associated modifiable risk factors to low levels before and during pregnancy. Recommendations The following are recommended: regular follow-ups for pregnant women, especially those who had high parity; maintaining healthy lifestyle; encouraging preconception precautions, including intake of folic acid and treatment of health problems; immediate postnatal care; and follow-up for mothers with negative Rh to prevent complications.


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