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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 141-151

Factors associated with nurses’ readiness for organizational change at Beni Sueif University Hospital


1 Demonstrator in Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt
2 Assistant Professor of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
3 Lecturer of Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Cairo, Egypt

Date of Submission30-Apr-2017
Date of Acceptance30-May-2017
Date of Web Publication12-Jan-2018

Correspondence Address:
Fatma F El-Sayed
Demonstrator in Nursing Administration, Faculty of Nursing, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ENJ.ENJ_24_17

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  Abstract 

Background Organizations are forced to stay and respond to environmental changes in order to survive. Nurses’ readiness for organizational change is considered a key aspect of any organizational change efforts and can be a determining factor of successful change.
Patients and methods This study aimed to investigate factors associated with nurses’ readiness for organizational change. A descriptive exploratory design was used in this study. The study was conducted in all In-patient Care Units at Beni Sueif University Hospital. A convenience sample of staff nurses working in the above-mentioned setting constituted the study sample (N=179).
Results The studied sample had moderate readiness and low resistance for organizational change. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between nurses’ readiness for organizational change and both professional nursing practice environment and structural empowerment. A negative correlation was found between nurses’ readiness for organizational change and both dispositional resistance to organizational change and emotional climate.
Recommendations Nursing leaders’ efforts must be directed toward creating magnet environment that promotes nurses’ readiness for change by providing them with access to opportunity to learn and grow and access to support and create an autonomous work practice. Enhancement of emotional work climate among nurses is of great importance to promote their readiness for organizational change.

Keywords: Factors, nurses, readiness for organizational change


How to cite this article:
El-Sayed FF, Seada AM, El-Guindy HA. Factors associated with nurses’ readiness for organizational change at Beni Sueif University Hospital. Egypt Nurs J 2017;14:141-51

How to cite this URL:
El-Sayed FF, Seada AM, El-Guindy HA. Factors associated with nurses’ readiness for organizational change at Beni Sueif University Hospital. Egypt Nurs J [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Jul 23];14:141-51. Available from: http://www.enj.eg.net/text.asp?2017/14/2/141/223100


  Introduction Top


In fact, we live in an era of unprecedented change; thus, the organizations should constantly adapt if they are to survive as a result of high significant level of change in today’s healthcare environment due to the emergence of new technology, financial pressures, and workplace changes. In addition, healthcare organizations must implement a variety of organizational changes in order to increase the quality decrease in costs, improve market share, maintain efficiency, retain the qualified employees, and promote patient satisfaction (Marquis and Huston, 2015).

Theories of change declared that readiness for organizational change is an important factor to effective and successful organizational change, and critical to changes in an individual’s behavior. In addition, change means uncertainty for individuals as it is from what is known to be unknown either in terms of the structure of an organization or relationships within the organization. The literature offers many reasons for resistance to organizational change, such as change in roles, duties, and responsibilities after change, the perceived danger for organizational career, loss of some rights such as participation in decision making, access to information, and autonomous practice (Lunenburg, 2010; Mittal, 2012).

Readiness for change is the degree to which individuals within the organization accept and adopt a certain plan in order to alter the current status (Mohamed, 2014). It reflects the unfreezing concept of proposed change reported by Lewin and is very critical for successful implementation of change. The unfreezing stage of change process means that the individual’s attitudes about a change initiative are altered in a manner that they begin to see change process as necessary and likely to be successful (Choi and Ruona, 2011).

Nurses are the largest group of healthcare delivery system and they play an integral and crucial role in any healthcare organization. Moreover, their efforts contribute to the success of this change and improvement of quality of patient care (Draper et al., 2008; Hussain, 2015). Therefore, the success of any change depends mostly on change agent, individuals who will be affected by change, the type of change, and what should be changed as well as evaluation of change. Managers should take into consideration the individuals who will be affected by change as an important factor when changing their organizations (Choi and Ruona, 2011).

Change can be defined as major departure from the current state and can be unintentional or planned. Moreover, change is concerned with changing current knowledge, skills, and attitude, whereas organizational change is defined as a way to bring new attitude and behaviors in the employees and this will help them to perform their tasks more efficiently and effectively (Siddiqui, 2011).

Managers and professionals should understand how to initiate readiness for organizational change. Therefore, the influencing factors must be identified and analyzed, and then specific approaches for change readiness can be designed and implemented effectively. Furthermore, it was found that successful change efforts are not only due to individual factors but also due to other factors such as organizational and contextual factors (Wittenstein, 2010).

As regards individual factors, it is concerned with characteristics, attitudes, and preferences of individuals toward readiness for organizational change, which are focused on demographic variables and characteristics, and dispositional resistance to organizational change (Wittig, 2012; Abdelkawey and Sleem, 2015). However, contextual factors refer to characteristics of work environment that affect readiness for organizational change and refer to professional nursing practice environment. It focused on self-determination, educational chances, control over nursing practice, and nurse–physician relationship (Wittenstein, 2010).

As for organizational factors, Walinga (2010) stated that it refers to job characteristics that empower employees with the attitude, skills, and opportunities to manage change. In addition, it focuses on emotional climate and structural empowerment. Emotional climate helps in providing a structure for evaluating and assessing the role of emotion in readiness for organizational change. It can be defined as the sum of emotions or feelings, shared by groups of individuals. The structural empowerment is an organization’s ability to provide access to information, resources, and support in the work environment. The aim of the current study was to investigate the factors associated with nurses’ readiness for organizational change.

Significance

The potential significance of this study is an understanding of organizational behavior by examining variables that may influence staff nurse’s readiness for organizational change. Successful change efforts are believed to be due to a combination and integration of many factors such as individual, contextual, and organizational factors. An examination of the relationships among these variables may provide a better understanding of how and why organizational change efforts succeed or fail. Moreover, this information can help healthcare leaders to better understand how they can influence staff nurse’s readiness for organizational change, possibly leading to more successful change efforts.

Aim

The study aimed to investigate the factors associated with nurses’ readiness for organizational change.

Research question

What are the factors associated with nurses’ readiness for organizational change?


  Methods Top


Research design

A descriptive exploratory design was used in this study.

Setting

The study was conducted in all In-patient Care Units at Beni Sueif University Hospital. The study included the following units: Medical, Surgical, Critical Care, Orthopedic, Hemodialysis, ENT, Pediatric, Obstetric, Emergency, and Operation. It is a teaching hospital equipped with 480 beds. It is a free service hospital for all departments with a wide range of ambulatory care services such as outpatient, pharmacy, emergency, X-ray, and physiotherapy and paramedical services such as dietary, laundry, and maintenance.

Participants

A convenience sample of staff nurses who were available and accepted to participate in this study constituted the study sample. The total number of staff nurse who were included in the study was 21 male and 158 female participants.

Data collection tools

Data were collected by using readiness for organizational change questionnaire that was adapted by the research investigators after reviewing the related literature; it consists of the following different four tools.

First tool

The first tool covered individual factors that affect nurse’s readiness for organizational change. It has two parts:

First part: It includes personal data items such as age, marital status, educational qualification, place of work, years of experience in nursing career, and years of experience in unit.

Second part: It includes questions pertaining to nurses’ readiness for and resistance to organizational change developed by Hanpachern (1998) and Oreg (2003). They included 19 items. Responses ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The scoring system was as follows: high readiness or resistance to organizational change, 66.7–100%; moderate readiness or resistance to organizational change, 33.4–66.6%; and low readiness or resistance to organizational change, 0–33.3%.

Second tool: nursing work index

This questionnaire was developed by Aiken et al. (1997) and revised by Partician (2000). It is used to measure contextual factors that affect nurse’s readiness for organizational change and focused on professional nursing practice environment. It includes 15 items and contains the following subscales: autonomy (three items), control over nursing practice (six items), educational opportunities (three items), and nurse–physician relationship (three items). Response was measured using a five-point likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The scoring system was as follows: 0–33.3, lower attributes favoring professional nursing practice environment; 33.4–66.6, moderate attributes favoring professional nursing practice environment; and 66.7–100, higher attributes favoring professional nursing practice environment.

Third tool:conditions of work effectiveness-II questionnaire

Conditions of work effectiveness-II questionnaire was developed by Laschinger (2001). It focuses on nurse’s perceptions of structural empowerment and opportunities in their work. It contains 13 items and consists of four subscales that were used to measure perceived access to organizational factors − namely, opportunities (three items), information (three items), support (four items), and resources (three items). Response was measured using a five-point likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The scoring system was as follows: 0–33.3, lower access to the particular subcategory of empowerment; 33.4–66.6, moderate access to the particular subcategory of empowerment; and 66.7–100, higher access to the particular subcategory of empowerment.

Fourth tool: Geneva emotion wheel

Geneva emotion wheel was developed by Tran (2004) and Scherer (2005) and is used to measure organizational factors that affect nurse’s readiness for organizational change and focus on emotional climate organization through aggregation of individual measures of the emotions. The response was measured using a checklist in the form of making a true mark and selecting one emotion that the respondent believes best represents the overall emotional tone of the health system organization, in addition to a four-point likert scale to select the intensity (strength) of selected emotions, which ranged from (1) low intensity (least intense) to (4) high intensity (most intense). The emotions were categorized into four categories of emotions: positive high control emotional climate (pride, elation, joy, and satisfaction), positive low control emotional climate (relief, hope, and interest), negative high control emotional climate (envy, disgust, and anger), and negative low control emotional climate (sadness, fear, shame, and guilt).

Tool validity and reliability

Study tools were submitted to a panel of five experts in the Nursing Administration Department at the Faculty of Nursing Cairo University. Each one of the experts on the panel was asked to examine the instrument for content coverage, clarity, wording, length, format, and overall appearance. Double translation English–Arabic–English was carried out to ensure the validity of tools. Modifications of tools were made according to panel judgment. Besides, reliability of the developed tools was established using Chronbach’s α. It was appropriate enough to confirm the internal consistency of associated scores. Reliability index that estimates the internal consistency or homogeneity of a measure composed of several subparts; also called coefficient alpha, which showed satisfactory level it was (0.777, 0.801, 0.830, 0.9010) respectively.

Ethical consideration

A primary approval was obtained from the research Ethics Committee of Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, as well as an official permission was obtained from the selected hospital. All participants were provided with information sheets detailing the aims of the study and the study process, they were given the opportunity to ask questions about the research, and they were informed that they could withdraw from the study at any time without any negative consequences. Informed consent was obtained from each participant before data collection. Anonymity and confidentiality of personal recorded data were assured through coding of data. Participants were assured that their personal data will be used only for research purpose.

Pilot study

A pilot study was carried out on 15 nurses (10% of the sample size) selected from Beni Suef University Hospital. Those nurses were not included in study sample. The purposes of the pilot study were to check and ensure the clarity of the translated tools, identify obstacles and problems that might be encountered during data collection, and to estimate the time needed to fill out the questionnaires. On the basis of the findings of the pilot study, some items were modified.

Procedure

Upon receiving the formal approval from the Ethics and Research Committee at the Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University, to conduct the study, an official permission for conducting this study was obtained from the director of Beni Suief University Hospital as well as nursing director. The researcher met with the study participants who were available in their work place and accepted to participate in study. Thereafter, an explanation of study purpose and nature of the study was provided to facilitate data collection. This was carried out in both morning and afternoon shift after referring to nurses’ scheduling. The questionnaire sheets took around 30 min for each participant to answer. It was returned on the same day. Data collection activities consumed consecutive 3 months from August 2016 to November 2016.

Statistical analysis

After completing data collection and in order to attain the aim of this study a number of statistics were used. The collected data were scored, tabulated using statistical package for the social science (SPSS) program, version 21, and analyzed using the following tests. For demographic data, descriptive statistics were used. Moreover, frequency tables with numbers and percent were used to determine the average of the frequencies of each item included in the study. In addition, mean and SD were used as measures of central tendency and dispersion, respectively, for qualitative data. Pearson’s rank correlation coefficient was also used to examine the relationship between variables. Level of statistical significance was considered at P value of less than 0.05. Finally, the result was tabulated and interpreted in the following chapter.

[Table 1] shows percentage distributions of study participants according to their personnel characteristics. As regards age it is clear from [Table 1] that about half of the participants in the study sample (50.3%) were between 20 and 30 years of age. Concerning unit, it is also clear that 27.3% of the study sample included nurses working in medical and surgical units. Data in the same table also illustrate that the highest percentage of participants in the study sample (67.9%) were married.
Table 1 Percentage distributions of study participants according to their personnel characteristics (N=179)

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[Figure 1] illustrates that the majority of the study sample (88.7%) were female and the rest were male (11.3%).
Figure 1 Percentage distributions of study participants according to their sex (N=179).

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[Figure 2] illustrates that about half of the study sample (50%) had nursing school diploma, whereas only 16.1% of them had bachelor degree in nursing.
Figure 2 Percentage distributions of study participants according to their educational qualification (N=179).

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[Figure 3] illustrates that about 30.8% of the study sample had years of experience ranging from 1 to 5 years. However, only 4.2% of them had less than 1 year of experience in nursing career.
Figure 3 Percentage distributions of study participants according to their years of experience in nursing career (N=179).

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[Table 2] represents the mean±SD score of nurses’ perceptions toward readiness and dispositional resistance to organizational change. It is clear that the mean score of nurses’ readiness for change was 34.88+5.45, which indicates moderate readiness for change according to the above scoring system, and represents 77.51% of maximum score. Moreover, the mean score of nurses’ resistance to organizational change was 23.34±6.26, which indicates low resistance to organizational change and represents 46.6% of maximum score.
Table 2 Mean score and SD of nurses’ perceptions toward readiness and dispositional resistance to organizational change

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[Table 3] illustrates that the study sample had moderate attributes favoring professional nursing practice environment as the total mean was equal to 37.46±10.07, which represents 49.8% of maximum score. The highest mean score was observed for control over nursing practice subscale (12.36±5.31), which represents 49.2% of maximum score.
Table 3 Mean score and SD of nurses’ perception of professional nursing practice environment as contextual factor affects their readiness for organizational change

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[Table 4] indicates that the study sample had low access to structural empowerment in which total mean score was 29.07±9.19, which represents 44.7% of maximum score. Concerning subcategories of structural empowerment, access to opportunities, information, support, and resources, the mean scores were 8.80±2.38, 5.62±2.57, 8.46±3.43, and 6.18±2.65, respectively, and the maximum scores were 58.6, 37.4, 56.4, and 30.9%, respectively.
Table 4 Mean score and SD of nurses’ perception of structural empowerment as contextual factor affects their readiness for organizational change

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[Table 5] presents nurses’ perception toward intensity of emotional climate as organizational factor affects nurses’ readiness for organizational change. It is clear that the majority of nurses (77%) perceived negative high control emotional climate with high intensity. However, only 6.1% perceived positive high control emotional climate ([Table 6]).
Table 5 Nurses’ perception toward intensity of emotional climate as organizational factor affect their readiness for organizational change (n=179)

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Table 6 Correlation matrix between study variables subscales

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The above table summarizes the correlation matrix between study variable subscales. It is clear that there was a statistically significant negative correlation between readiness for change and dispositional resistance for change (r=−0.464). Moreover, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between readiness for change and total professional nursing practice environment (r=0.316) and also with all its subscales. Moreover, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between readiness for change and total empowerment (r=0.200) with negative correlation with emotional climate (r=−0.114). As regards dispositional resistance to organizational change, there was a significant negative correlation between nurses’ resistance to organizational change and total professional nursing practice environment (r=−0.407, P=0.000) and with all its subscales except nurse–physician relationship as well as with structural empowerment (r=−0.110, P=0.002). Data in the same table show a statistically significant positive correlation between total professional nursing practice environment and total empowerment (r=0.298). However, no statistically significant correlation was found between total professional nursing practice environment and emotional climate.

[Table 7] presents the relationship between nurses’ perceptions of all study variables (readiness for change, dispositional resistance to change, professional nursing practice environment, structural empowerment, and emotional climate and their personal characteristics). As regards readiness for change, it is clear from this table that there was a strong positive correlation between nurses’ readiness for change and their age, years of experience in nursing career, and social status (P<0.05). Concerning resistance to change, the same table also shows a strong positive correlation between nurses ‘perception of resistance to change and their age, years of experience in nursing career, and social status (P<0.05). Data in the same table illustrate a strong positive correlation between nurses’ perception of professional nursing practice environment and their age, years of experience in nursing career, social status, and educational qualification (P<0.05).
Table 7 Relationship between nurses’ perceptions of readiness for change, dispositional resistance to change and professional nursing practice environment and their personal characteristics

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  Discussion Top


Organizations are continually facing many challenges to stay competitive and successful, which forces them to regularly reassess and reevaluate their strategies, structures, policies, and culture. However, effective management of change is the main challenge because of more human involvement in the change process. Thus, both managers and change agents should realize how to encourage and prepare employees for change effectively (Sikh, 2011; Anjuguna, 2016).

As regards nurses’ perceptions toward readiness for organizational change, the results of the present study revealed that nurses had moderate readiness for organizational change. This result is contradictory to the study by Shah (2009), Andrew (2017), and Sikh (2011), who found that nurses had high readiness for organizational change. In addition, Mangundjaya (2013) and Inandi and Gilic (2016) reported that nurses had low readiness for organizational change. From the researcher’s point of view this result could be related to lack of support given from top management to nurses in decision-making processes, in addition to lack of appreciation to nurses in the form of low salaries, rewards, and inadequate resources, poor communication system, vague information about change, and lack of staff training and development. Therefore, nurses may be dissatisfied, less committed to their healthcare organization, and less motivated to participate in any change program. In addition to poor social relationship reported by nurses in work place, all of these may affect their openness and willingness to change. Concerning nurses’ perception toward dispositional resistance to organizational change, study results showed low dispositional resistance to organizational change for all study sample; this result is supported by Yilmaz and Kilicoglu (2013). However, Ethan (2010) and Abdelkawey and Sleem (2015) found contradictory result that nurses had moderate dispositional resistance to organizational change. Moreover, Lamm and Gordon (2010) found higher dispositional resistance to change among study participants.

As regards nurses’ perception toward professional nursing practice environment, the study results revealed moderate attributes that favor professional nursing practice environment among study participants. This result was supported by Raquel (2013) and Hauck et al. (2011), who found that nurses had moderate perception toward professional nursing practice environment. In contrast, Duva (2010) found that there was a high attribute favoring professional nursing practice environment. In the same issue Lambrou et al. (2014) found that nurses perceived their professional working environment as stressful, and this is due to low attributes favoring professional nursing practice environment.

Another finding of the present study revealed that the studied sample perceived low access to subscales of empowerment. This finding is in agreement with Patrick (2010) and Sun et al. (2012). However, Brien (2010), Laschinger and Almost (2015), and Walston (2012) reported that staff nurses had a moderate access to factors related to job empowerment. Further, Fitzpatrick et al. (2011) and Bish et al. (2012) also reported that nurses were moderately empowered. From the researcher’s point of view this could be related to lack of opportunities to master new skills and gain new knowledge, as well as poor information about organizational policies and goals.

Concerning nurses’ perception of emotional climate, the study results revealed that the studied sample perceives negative high control emotional climate with high intensity. This result is contradictory to the study by Wittenstein (2010), who reported that most nurses perceived positive high control emotional climate. This finding is in agreement with Khalid and Rashid (2011) as they reported that organizational change is a cause of threats to workers. They also added that emotions help in dealing with these threats, setting new goals, and learning new behavior, and hence nursing personnel perceived negative high control emotional climate (envy, disgust, and anger) with high intensity. From the researcher’s point of view, this might be related to dissatisfaction of nurses as regards their current work because of work overload, insufficient resources, low salaries, and unprofessional relationships in work environment. All these factors lead to high stress level among nurses, which in turn produces negative emotions toward their organization.

Concerning correlation among study variables, results of the current study showed that there was a highly statistically significant negative correlation between nurses’ readiness for organizational change and dispositional resistance to organizational change. In this respect, Van Dam et al. (2011) reported that some people may be liable to resist organizational changes because they dislike any change in their current work situation or because they are less confident about their capabilities to perform in a changed situation, and thus become less open for change. They also reported that openness to change was significantly and negatively associated with resistance to change. From the researcher’s point of view this might be attributed to the fact that nurses want to search for stable and permanent routines in their life. Moreover, they may feel anxious when they face organizational change and all of them had a tendency to hold on to their own views due to lack of communication, insufficient information, and lack of participation in planning for any change program.

Moreover the study results illustrate that there was a highly statistically significant positive correlation between nurses’ readiness for organizational change and professional nursing practice environment as well as its four dimensions (autonomy, control over nursing practice, nurse–physician relationship, and educational opportunities). Further, a highly statistically significant negative relation between nurses’ dispositional resistance to organizational change and professional nursing practice was found. This finding indicated that, as perception of the professional nursing practice environment improved, nurses’ readiness for organizational change also improved. This result is in agreement with that of Wittenstein (2010), who also found a significant positive association between professional nursing practice environment and nurses’ readiness for organizational change. From the researcher’s point of view, the work environment that allows nurses to make decisions for patient and freedom to make essential work decisions may enhance their readiness for change. Moreover, getting support from their supervisor, enough time and opportunity to discuss patient care problems with other nurses, and working as a team with physicians through good relationship and collaboration may enhance willingness of nurses to organizational change.

Concerning work place structural empowerment, the study results revealed that there was a statistically significant positive correlation between nurses’ readiness for organizational change and structure empowerment with a significant negative correlation between nurses’ resistance to organizational change and structural empowerment. This result is consistent with Chilton (2010), who added that employees’ readiness for organizational change can be enhanced by allowing them to participate in all decisions and empowering them to change. Another study by Maleki et al. (2014) emphasized that there was a significant positive relationship between structural empowerment and nurses’ readiness for organizational change. In the same line, Khammarnia et al. (2014) reported that nurses’ access to opportunity had a significant statistical effect on their readiness for organizational change. Consequently, empowerment had a significant and positive correlation with nurses’ attitude and behavior to accept organizational change. Moreover, results of the present study also revealed a statistically significant correlation between nurses’ readiness for organizational change and the following subscales of structural empowerment (access to opportunity and access to support) as a work environment that provides nurses with structural empowerment will give them more opportunities to gain new skills and knowledge on the job and also provide nurses with support; moreover, offering rewards for innovation on the job may enhance willingness of nurses to organizational change.

As regards relationship between nurses’ readiness for organizational change and emotional climate, the current study indicated a significant negative correlation between nurses’ readiness for organizational change and negative high control emotional climate. This might be contributed to the stressors that nurses face due to work overload and they might see change as interruption and cause of threats, which negatively affect their readiness for organizational change. In this context, Khalid and Rashid (2011) stated that job stressors can lead to negative emotional responses.

Results of the present study revealed that there was a highly statistically significant positive correlation between professional nursing practice environment and structural empowerment. This result is supported by Abdelkawey and Sleem (2015), who found that there was also a positive correlation between professional nursing practice environment and structural empowerment. Similarly, Laschinger and Almost (2015) reported that social structures within the work environment that empower nurses with access to information, support, resources, strong interpersonal relationships, and chances to learn and grow allow them to perform their work activities in an effective manner.

As regards the relationship between nurses’ personal characteristics and their readiness for organizational change, the present study revealed that there was a statistically significant correlation between nurses’ age and their readiness for organizational change. This result is supported by Sikh (2011) and Shah and Ghulam (2010), who reported that younger employees are liable to welcome any organizational change, and also are less resistant to organizational change. Therefore, they were ready and open for organizational change compared with older employees. However, this result is contradictory to the findings of Shah (2010), who found no correlation between readiness for organizational change and age. The present study also revealed a statistically significant relationship between nurses’ readiness for change and years of experience in nursing career. This result is supported by Wanberg and Banas (2010), who found that employees who were new to the organization were more ready for organizational change than those who had more years of experiences.

A statistically significant relationship was found also between nurses’ perceptions of readiness for organizational change and their marital status. Married nurses had the highest mean score percent as regards readiness for organizational change. This result is supported by Chan and Han (2011), who pointed out that married employees are more committed to the organization. However, this result is contradictory to the findings of Shah (2010), who found no relationship between readiness for organizational change and marital status. From the researcher’s point of view, married nurses are more emotionally stable compared with single ones, highly satisfied, committed due to their family responsibilities and financial burden, and have good and positive relationship with their supervisor and peers, which help them to become more open toward change.

Moreover, the present study pointed out that there was a highly statistically significant relationship between nurses’ age and their dispositional resistance to change. This is supported by Islam et al. (2010), who found that, the more the age of the employees, the greater the resistance to accept organizational change as they feel stable with their current position. Any change in organization will bring change to their stable ‘career’ position and hence they will try to avoid this situation. This result was contradictory to Berg and Hetland (2009), who found that younger individuals have higher dispositional resistance to organizational change compared with older individuals.

The present study illustrated a highly statistically significant relationship between dispositional resistance to change and nurses’ years of experience in nursing career. This could be supported by Van Dam et al. (2011), who found that employees who have more years of experience in the work place are satisfied. Moreover organizational change is usually correlated with changes in the individual’s work situation, employees who are more satisfied with their current work situation and those who perceive less job alternatives will be less positive toward changing their situation and may therefore show more resistance to the organizational change.

Another finding of the present study revealed a strong positive correlation between nurse’s perception of professional nursing practice environment and their age and years of experience in nursing career. In this respect, Elaine et al. (2009) illustrated that perception as regards professional nursing practice environment increased with increasing nurses’ age and their years of experience. Moreover, Hwang and Alexander (2010) reported that, the more working years of experience nurses had, the higher was the perception toward magnet hospital characteristics.

Moreover, the present study revealed a statistically significant relationship between nurses’ level of education and their perception toward professional nursing practice environment. From the researcher’s point of view, nurses who had low level of education believe that their contributions and effort are not recognized, and they feel powerless due to low level of knowledge and skills, which decreases their autonomy and control over nursing practice as well as lack of participation in decision making. Concerning social status, results of the present study revealed that married nurses had the highest mean score as regards professional nursing practice environment. This result was consistent with Hwang and Alexander (2010), who revealed a statistically significant relationship between marital status and perception toward magnet hospital characteristics.


  Conclusion Top


On the basis of the results of the current study it can be concluded that the studied sample had moderate readiness and low resistance for organizational change. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between nurses readiness for organizational change and both professional nursing practice environment and structural empowerment. A negative correlation was found between nurses’ readiness for organizational change and both dispositional resistance to organizational change and emotional climate.


  Recommendations Top


On the basis of the findings of the present study, the following were recommended:
  1. Assessment of nurses’ readiness toward organizational change is crucial before initiation of organizational change. Therefore, organizations should focus not only on change readiness strategies but also on the factors that influence readiness by having a better understanding of the needs of employees.
  2. Management should try to start a set of policies and practices that could positively influence employees’ attitudes and thus decrease the potential negative impact of the proposed change.
  3. Healthcare administrators have to provide access to support to their employees by providing rewards for an innovative jobs, job flexibility as well as opportunities to participate in decision making and problem solving, which give them feeling of being empowered.
  4. Nursing leader’s efforts should be directed toward creating opportunities for nurses to learn and grow and enhance teamwork through collaboration between health team members as well as creation of autonomous work practice.
  5. Create positive work climate by eliminating sources of work stress among nurses, such as insufficient resources, work overload, low salary, and thus foster positive high emotional climate rather than a negative one.


Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.





 
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