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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-April 2018
Volume 15 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-92

Online since Monday, September 3, 2018

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Occupational hazards and quality of life among fertilizer factory workers in Assiut City p. 1
Shimaa E Aly, Fayza M Mohammed
DOI:10.4103/ENJ.ENJ_31_17  
Background Occupational hazards are the major source of morbidity and mortality among the factory workers owing to exposure to many hazardous situations in their daily practices. Aim This study aimed to identify the relation between the occupational hazards and quality of life (QOL) among fertilizer factory workers in Assiut City. Participants and methods A descriptive study design was used. The study was conducted in a fertilizer factory. This factory was located in the west of Assiut (Manqbad Center). The sample size was 362 workers selected by convenient sampling. The study includes two tools: tool I had interview questionnaires and included three parts − part 1 included personal data, part 2 had past and present medical history, and part 3 had questions to assess occupational hazards − whereas tool II comprised QOL questionnaire. Results The study revealed that more than half of workers did not know the problems of noise, whereas more than half of them knew accident exposure is one of the problems of inadequate lighting, and most workers mentioned that bad ventilation caused respiratory problems. Most workers noticed that the accidents or injuries and respiratory problems are considered the problems occurring owing mechanical and chemical hazards exposure, respectively. Moreover, more than half of the workers had moderate level of QOL. Conclusion The study concluded that there was statistically significant difference between QOL and workers’ complaints (skin problems and allergy symptoms, poisoning, headache, nausea and vomiting, fainting, osteoporosis, and anemia). Moreover, there was statistically significant difference between QOL of workers and physical (noisy and ventilation), mechanical, and chemical hazards. The study recommends that regular medical checkups for workers and more research studies regarding occupational hazards must be done.
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Lifestyle factors between fertile and infertile women at Assiut Women’s Health Hospital p. 9
Entisar M Youness
DOI:10.4103/ENJ.ENJ_34_17  
Background Over the past few decades, many lifestyle factors have been increasingly evidenced to affect women’s fertility. Despite this evidence, many infertile women continue to ignore the importance of a healthy lifestyle on their reproductive health. Aim The aim of the study was to compare the lifestyle factors between fertile and infertile women. Patients and methods A descriptive comparative study design was used to conduct this study. A convenience sample of 200 women was recruited from Women’s Health Hospital, Assiut University. One hundred infertile women who were attending the infertility clinics were recruited as the study group and diagnosed as infertile, and another 100 fertile women who were attending the family planning clinic for seeking contraceptive services were taken as the control group. Tools of data collection included BMI, physical activity, nutrition status assessment, and smoking assessment. Results A highly statistically significant difference was found between fertile and infertile women in terms of physical activity and BMI, whereas nutritional status, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption showed no statistical significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Lifestyle factors significantly affected female fertility, as physical activity and BMI had a statistical significant difference between the groups. Recommendations The unhealthy lifestyle status of the infertile women must be modified through effective measures. Modifiable lifestyle factors should be applied to all women who are seeking infertility treatment to help them make positive changes in their lives and improve their chances of conceiving, that is, getting a healthy pregnancy and a live baby. Moreover, developing guidelines for healthy lifestyles would be a prudent step toward helping healthcare providers especially nurses to implement this aspect of preconceptional care.
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Women’s awareness and perceptions about maternal mortality in rural communities in Assiut and Fayoum Governorates, Egypt p. 21
Ghadah A Mahmoud, Ayat M Omar
DOI:10.4103/ENJ.ENJ_28_17  
Background Awareness among women about maternal mortality is a very important step as a preventive measure to reduce its rate and to understand misconception of women’s knowledge about its issues. Aim This study aimed to assess the awareness and perceptions of women about maternal mortality issues in rural areas in both Assiut and Fayoum Governorates. Patients and methods A descriptive comparative research was conducted in this study. A total of 600 rural women were included and divided into two equal groups in Assiut and Fayoum Governorates (300 and 300, respectively). A structured interviewing questionnaire was designed by the researcher to assess the awareness and perceptions of these women who lived in rural communities about maternal mortality issues. Results There are no statistical significance differences between both groups regarding the levels of awareness about maternal mortality (P>0.05). More than two-thirds of rural women in both groups considered post-partum period as the commonest time for maternal deaths (71 and 67%, respectively). The rural women in both groups perceived lack of maternal health awareness as the main cause of maternal deaths (60 and 64% in Assiut and Fayoum Governorates, respectively). Age of women and their family size were considered as risk factors affecting the levels of awareness among these women. Conclusion There are no statistical significance differences between both groups in rural communities regarding the levels of awareness about maternal mortality. Recommendations Educational programs should be conducted about maternal health issues through Ministry of Health to raise the awareness of women about these issues especially in rural communities of Egypt.
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The effect of peer education on adolescent students’ knowledge and performance of breast self-examination p. 30
Hala A El Fttah Ali, Sabah R Hussein
DOI:10.4103/ENJ.ENJ_39_17  
Background Awareness of breast cancer causes and the screening program can help in reduction of morbidity and mortality among women. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the effect of peer education on adolescent students’ knowledge and performance of breast self-examination (BSE). Methods A quasi-experimental study (pretest and post-test evaluations) was conducted. The study was conducted at the Faculty of Nursing, Kafrelsheikh University. A convenience sample of all students (260 peer students) from third level of Faculty of Nursing was recruited for the study. The students were divided equally into two groups: group 1 was assigned to individual education and group 2 was assigned to group education. The study was conducted from the first of December 2016 to the end of February 2017. Three tools were used to collect the data: a personal data record, BSE knowledge questionnaire, and BSE performance checklist. Results Despite the satisfactory knowledge level between the two groups did not differ significantly at baseline evaluation, the satisfactory knowledge level was reported to be more enhanced among the students in the education group than in the individual education group after intervention. The frequency of adequate performance of BSE did not differ significantly between the studied groups at baseline; however, after intervention, the frequency of adequate performance of BSE was significantly higher in the students in the group education group. The level of mother education significantly affected the knowledge and the performance level in the study groups. After intervention, the students with educated mother had significantly higher frequency of satisfactory knowledge level than students with uneducated mother in the individual education group and also in the group education group. Conclusion The peer education positively affects the knowledge and performance level of BSE of adolescent students. Recommendation Peer educational programs based on BSE should be propagated for various age groups to raise public awareness and achieve generalization about breast cancer prevention.
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Health Belief Model-based educational program about cervical cancer prevention on women knowledge and beliefs p. 39
Sabah Ramadan Hussein Ahmed, Amany Saad Mohamed Esa, Ons Said MohamedEl-zayat
DOI:10.4103/ENJ.ENJ_38_17  
Background Awareness of cervical cancer causes and the implementation of screening program can help in reduction of morbidity and mortality among women. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nursing educational program based on Health Belief Model (HBM) on women knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer prevention. Study design This was a quasi-experimental study (pretest and posttest evaluations). Setting This study was conducted in El-Maasara Maternal and Child Health Center, Helwan City, Egypt. Participants and methods A convenience sample of 150 married women was included. The study was conducted from beginning of August 2016 to the end of January 2017 covering a period of 6 months. Two tools were used to conduct this study: a structured cervical cancer knowledge questionnaire and HBM scale. Knowledge and beliefs were assessed using the study tools and then an educational program was designed based on the results of the pretest. The program was implemented followed by evaluation of its effect using the same tools. Results All the women had poor knowledge score regarding cervical cancer prevention before the program. However, after the program, 16 and 84% of the women had an average and good knowledge, respectively, on cervical cancer prevention. This difference was significant (P<0.001). There were a significant increase in the scores of the perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, and the cues to action after the program compared with the scores before the program. Conclusion After implementation of the nursing educational program regarding cervical cancer prevention for married women, knowledge improved significantly, and there were significant improvements in perceived severity, barriers, benefits, and the cues to action scores after program compared with the scores before program (P≤0.001). These study results supported the study hypotheses. Recommendations Propagation of educational programs based on HBM on cervical cancer prevention to various age groups would help raise public awareness about cervical cancer and take action for its prevention.
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Effect of instructional guidelines on mothers of children with conjunctivitis p. 50
Azza El-Sayed Ali Hegazy, Mona Mohamed Abd El-Maksoud, Mayada Taha Mahmoud Sabea
DOI:10.4103/ENJ.ENJ_36_17  
Background Conjunctivitis is a common infection especially among children younger than 5 years. Although conjunctivitis rarely results in permanent visual loss or structural damage, it causes discomfort and is highly contagious. This study aimed to assess, plan, implement, and evaluate the effect of instructional guidelines on knowledge and reported practices of mothers regarding care of their children with conjunctivitis. Patients and methods A pretest/post-test quasi-experimental research design was used. This study was conducted at the outpatient clinics of El-Fayoum Ophthalmic Hospital. The study participants included a random sample of 50 mothers having children with conjunctivitis attending the previously mentioned setting with their children at the time of this study. Tools used for data collection include: Mothers’ knowledge assessment sheet was used, which consisted of four parts: the first part included demographic characteristics of the children such as age, sex, birth order, residence, and crowding level; the second part included demographic characteristics of mothers such as age, educational level, working status, and health history of mothers; the third part included history of conjunctivitis in the studied children such as onset, source of infection, medical history, previous infection of the family members, and recurrent infection and its manifestation; and the fourth part included mothers’ knowledge about conjunctivitis throughout the guidelines phases such as definition, causes, clinical picture, mode of transmission, complications, prevention, and treatment. It also includes reported practices related to conjunctivitis throughout instructional guideline phases, such as practices related to use of personal protective measures to prevent spread of infection and alleviate symptoms. Results The main results revealed that there were highly statistically significant differences between before and after guidelines implementation. Conclusion The present study findings revealed that mothers had poor knowledge and unsatisfactory reported practices related to conjunctivitis and its management. Subsequently, they did not follow the correct instructions related to treatment. There was a positive effect of guidelines on improving knowledge and practices of the studied mothers. Recommendations Mothers’ classes and educational programs about management and prevention of conjunctivitis and its infection should be held at El-Fayoum Ophthalmic Hospital.
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Staff nurses expected role versus actual role at South Valley University p. 62
Azza Abd El Mawgod Abd El Hamid, Magda El Mola, Salwa A Mohamed
DOI:10.4103/ENJ.ENJ_30_17  
Aim Of this study is to assess the expected roles of staff nurses versus their actual role. Background Nursing role and practice is based on specialized knowledge and skills derived from principles of basic, applied sciences, and standards of professional performance. Each individual within an organization should have a specified role, which is reflected in the job description. However, roles could be seen from AQ8 different perspectives. It can be looked at as the expectation of the focal persons, or the organization’s expectation which is reflected in the job description, or the role behavior of the focal person. To avoid overlapping functions among many different roles, there should be a clear written job description of a nurse’s role. Method A descriptive correlational research design was utilized on a sample of 42 nurses at the Medical and Surgical Departments at the university hospital. Two data collection tools for the medical and surgical units were developed by the investigator based on the related literature and guided by the developed job description from the Ministry of Health, to assess the staff nurses expected and actual roles. Results The study indicated that there was low expectation of the staff nurses to various dimensions of their role at the medical unit, and there was a statistically significant difference between the surgical staff nurses’ expectation of their role and their actual practice in their direct, indirect, and educational roles. When comparing the medical and surgical staff nurses’ total expectation of all dimensions of their role, there was low expectation of the staff nurses to various dimensions of their role for both medical and surgical units, but there were discrepancies for their direct, educational, and actual roles. A statistically significant difference between the staff nurses expectation of their role and their actual practice according to sex and their nursing qualifications, as the bachelor nurses have a higher mean score at their actual performance than the technical nurses, and female nurses have a higher mean score than male nurses. Conclusion It is recommended that there was a need for job description and it should be drawn up in consultation with the employees, to increase commitment, and to reduce role ambiguity. Also a systematic training policy should be established, with orientation programs and continuing educational courses.
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Correlates to extravasation among patient receiving chemotherapy at a university hospital p. 71
Mona H Abd El-Salaheen, Bassamat O Ahmed, Amel S Mahmoud
DOI:10.4103/ENJ.ENJ_40_17  
Aim The aim of this study was to examine correlates associated with the occurrence of extravasations among patients receiving chemotherapy at a university hospital. Background Extravasation injuries are a medical emergency that have the potential to cause serious disability, diminish the patient’s quality of life, and leave nurses vulnerable to the risk of malpractice claims. Methods The study was conducted at a university Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. A convenience sample consisting of 300 adult male and female patients as well as all nurses working at the outpatient chemotherapy clinic (10 nurses) constituted the study sample. The following tools were used: (a) Patient Risk Factors Assessment Checklist for Extravasations, (b) Intravenous Administration of Chemotherapy via A peripheral Vein Checklist, and (c) Extravasations Recording Checklist. Results Only 11.4% of the participants had developed signs and/or symptoms of extravasations. The highest incidence rates of extravasations were among patients with age range between 18 and less than 30 years, among female patients, and among those who cannot read and write (17.24, 16.23, and 17.24%, respectively). Similarly, it was highest among those with uterine cancer, those with breast cancer, those with BMI less than 18.5, those having diabetes, those having hypertension, and those receiving nonirritant chemotherapy namely carboplatin (16, 15.3, 12.6, 12.2, 19.56, 14.29%. Conclusion Correlates to extravasations could be categorized as patients, chemotherapy, and environmental and nurses performance-related factors. Conducting periodic in-service training program for nurses and developing a standardized protocol of care in chemotherapy intravenous administration were strongly recommended.
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Factors affecting caregivers’ adherence to therapeutic regimens for their children after kidney transplantation p. 79
Kareem M Abdelhady, Gehan A El Samman, Azza Abdel Moghny Attia, Hanan Abdel Aziz Ahmed
DOI:10.4103/ENJ.ENJ_26_17  
Introduction Adherence to therapeutic regimens after kidney transplantation plays a role in graft survival and improving quality of life of children and their families. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the factors affecting caregivers’ adherence to therapeutic regimens for their children after kidney transplantation. A descriptive exploratory design was used in the current study. The study was conducted at kidney transplantation outpatient clinic at Al-Monira University Pediatric Hospital. A convenience sample was taken of 50 caregivers of children who had kidney transplantation and attended the outpatient clinic for follow-up. Caregiver structured interview sheet consisted of three parts: personal data, assessment adherence to therapeutic regimens, and factors affecting caregivers’ adherence. Results The results of the current study showed that approximately three-quarters of caregivers of children are the mothers. In the total level of adherence, only one-fifth of caregivers adhered to all therapeutic regimens. The highest adherence was for follow-up regimen, followed by hygiene and exercise regimens, and the lowest adherence was for medication and diet regimens. The caregivers’ factors of nonadherence are increased dependency on others, restrictions of daily living activities, transportation difficulties, and in some of them, adherence is difficult for them. Conclusion The current study concluded that only one-fifth of the caregivers adhered to all therapeutic regimens. The more educated and urban dwelling the caregiver, the more is adherence seen in the total score of therapeutic regimen, with statistically significant difference. The caregivers’ factors of nonadherence are psychological, financial, and some related to their commitment, as adherence is difficult for them. Recommendations The study recommended that assessment level of adherence among caregivers of children after kidney transplantation is essential to determine their actual and potential needs, and health education program must designed and implemented to maximize the adherence level.
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